Scuba & Training

Mistakes, errors, and poor judgment in scuba diving

Mistakes. Errors. Poor judgment. Who never does them, step aside.

Well, I guess, we all, at a different level of impact, did some mistakes during our diving careers. As professionals or non-professionals. We have all been in the yellow-orange part of the above chart.

What is important is to learn from our mistakes (even better, from others’ mistakes) and to not repeat them!

See Gareth Lock and his “Incompetent and Unaware: You don’t know what you don’t know…” blog. Good read about what we know or what we think we know!

In the following few blogs, I am intending to reveal a few of my past experiences, for your general knowledge and a “don’t do it at home” list. If you can pick up some ideas and apply them to your diving activities, it will be great! It means, I reached my goal.

I will start, with my last interesting and unexpected experience.

2022, January 2nd. We usually ran an activity called “New Year Dive” (in the 1st week of January) in which, we gather together, have some good talks, drink some soft drinks, have some good sweets, cookies, and Christmas cakes, and yes… dive. The easy dive site, 6-8m depth max. Is our “house reef”, the underwater sunken city Tomis (the wall and archaeological treasures). In the summertime, is rich in sea life. Gangs of seahorses, pipefish, schools of baby fish, and so on. Sometimes, is quite impressive!

In the wintertime… not much sea life. But the water tends to be clear, due to the lack of algae and of course, low water temperatures. From the +25… 27degC in the summertime (with huge and sometimes brutal thermoclines at the depths – in differences of 15-20degC between the top & bottom water layers), is dropping down to 4..7degC during the wintertime. Anyway, the latest research says that the winter the Black Sea average temperature increased by +3degC during the past 70 years. Not sure if I would really like to have tropical waters around or I will rather stick to our old Black Sea…

Anyway, long story short… We gather together, have some good chats, and finally, got dressed and ready for dive. Most of us in drysuits, few “macho mans” in wetsuits…

For this dive, I chose to let rest my beast rebreather JJ-CCR and dive recreational OC with my lovely Oceanreef Predator.

Is a beast in its sector. Not the latest (as the Oceanreef Neptune III, launched September 2021), but still… top of the line. Great for cold waters, contaminated water, underwater comms, SAR operations, underwater research, guiding groups, etc!

So… here I am. Well dressed and equipped (drysuit SFtech with hood and dry gloves, RBS, good OMS Slipstream fins, underwater camera…)

part of the team, the others already by the seaside…

So… ready to go. After about 150…200mtrs of walk (good testing of cardio & overall fitness level 😈), we reached our destination and were ready to enter the water and dive. Water temperature… 6-7degC. In fact, not so cold.

And from here onwards, starts my droplist of small misjudgments.

Firstly, I miscalculated my ballast weight by about 1.5 kgs. Tropical undergarment, polar undergarment, double ten liters, stage(s), rebreather CCR, recreational configuration… sometimes, we forget the exact weight we need for each configuration. Not end of the World as the shore entrance is full of various sizes of rocks. Problem solved. Not in the most elegant (technical) manner but… I filled up my drysuit pockets with a few rocks and… problem solved. I was able to descent. Hooray!

Secondly, I did not ask for sufficient assistance prior to diving. Adjusting a full face mask, with dry gloves and a thick hood, may be challenging. Therefore, my Predator did not seal properly and I had a very small but continuous leaking of air (thru the top side of the mask). I thought I could manage this small inconvenience during the dive so, I kept diving. Well… of course, my plan did not work as planned. Therefore, after about 10 minutes into diving, I decided to switch back to my backup regulator (attached with a bungee at my neck) and use the spare mask (placed in my drysuit pocket).

And here it comes the moment (and feeling) I did not expect that much. As already mentioned before, one of the greatest benefits of diving an Integrated Diving Mask is the fact that, is sealing the entire face from the cold (and possibly contaminated) waters. Your lips, eyes, cheeks are sealed from the unfriendly & hostile outside cold environment. Which is really good! Imagine, diving in +6degC water, and in fact, your face is sitting in almost +30degC air (body temperature is between +36… +37degC, as you may already know… “thanks” to the covid19 temperature readings).

So, here I am. Spare masked removed from my pocket and getting the last good breath from the IDM and start the changing procedure. IDM removed and… shock. #%$&#*$*ˆ*#ˆ%ˆ&&*… Of course, the cold water shock. From +30degC over all your face to +6degc in a matter of seconds… is bad. So uncomfortable that almost I could not breathe properly, despite my good quality cold water regulator set (Scubapro C370). Being in full mental control, I did try to regain breathing control and fit my tiny (low volume) spare mask. Not much luck… my brain was heavy fighting the freezing status of my face… Did some (many) cold Black Sea water dives in the past, when at the end of +1h dive could hardly speak and move my lips due to the anesthetic feeling… but this thermal shock (+30degC to +6degC) was quite something! So… did a slow and controlled ascent to the surface, enjoyed the dry (but still cold 7-8degC) of the air, a few breaths, and back to the depths with my 2nd configuration, and continued my dive for the next 45minutes.

Moral of the story?

My errors? And solutions?

  1. Miscalculating the ballast weight. I keep tracking my diving weight. In my logbooks. And memory.

Maybe a separate checklist file (as I have checklist/splash-list for the CCR, OC Tech & Sports activities) to take a note of the diving configuration, gear, water & weather condition, and weights used.

2. Spare mask… way too low volume. Very good as spare in my drysuit pocket but obviously, bit too tiny for my face… especially when the thermal shock was pressing me to move fast. Used this low-volume mask in the past (in various drills), when I was always switching from a standard diving mask to another standard diving mask or from an IDM to a standard diving mask in temperate waters… but not in so cold water!

Having a spare mask adequate for the face size. The space saved in the pocket by a low-volume mask vs a regular size mask… does not worth it.

3. Not asking for proper assistance to adjust the mask and hood prior to commencing the dive. I have been asked for but did not take full advantage and attention. When somebody is there to assist – use that help. If not, take an extra minute to make sure you are up-to-speed.

4. Not taking into account, while diving a (very) cold water, the huge thermal difference between the inside of IDM and the classic diving mask. Well… that is something which, I guess is hard to predict unless you experiment with it…

Always plan properly your dive. Take carefully into consideration all possible alternative options (plan B, plan C).

Coldwater diving… is a serious activity! Most of us, when we think and talk about cold diving, we focus solely on undergarment protection and electrical heating (if applicable). Plus hood and gloves. And we almost never take into consideration face protection or what if something is going wrong with the drysuit sealing or electrical heating, especially if the dive is requiring and long trip back or decompression stages till we safely reach the safe haven.

Conclusion word… we keep learning. Always! There are never two identical dives. Keep your mind calm, keep training & learning and dive on!

Stay safe!

Costa /

Adventures & Expeditions Scuba & Training

SCUBA – Intro to Tech… fad or necessity

Sport (recreational) SCUBA diving is one of the activities which gives us a very wide selection of paths to follow after the initial Open Water Diver level certification.

We can choose to stay inside of recreational (-40m depth max, no deco) limits, we can extend even here with enriched air nitrox or sidemount, underwater photography, or full face mask. Or, fortunately, we can move further.

And there is a long and exciting path of adventures and explorations, leading to great personal & social achievements, to self-enrichments & progress: Technical Diving

To dive deep open water reefs, explore outside & inside unknown wrecks, visit stunning caves or mysterious mines… in Open Circuit or Closed Circuit Rebreathers, with DPVs and extensive deco plannings, the options are almost endless.

But for everything, there is a start.

Intro to Tech – is compiling the basics of technical diving, is the building of fundamentals for a good future to be a technical diver.

From the basic but well-selected diving gear, finning techniques, trim & buoyancy, diver skills etc, the Technical Diving Instructor is there to show you the proper way of your 1st stepping into the Tek World.

Of course, there are divers which are preferring to “discover” by themselves the above-mentioned steps.

Or others who are directly entering the technical diving courses, under professional guidance & training.

For those divers short-cutting on their own (nothing against the self-study or autodidact process!), there is a list of great disadvantages:

  • not purchasing the right gear addapted for your diving target. There is NO universal diving gear set-up configuration, good for everything and everywhere! You might purchase brand new diving gear, youa e super proud of it… bt is totally useless in technical diving.
  • understanding the theory, with gaps or misinterpretations. Reading here and there, sometimes for not very trustfully sources, without proper real-life-application, can lead to unpleasant situations.
  • underwater skills & gear set-up – is cruicial! A bad diving behaviour is hard to be removed and replaced with the good ones. Even the good skills are available in various forms in order to achieve the final target, depending on many factors (diving profile, diving gear, diving team etc).
  • assessment, attitude & approach: technical diving is a beautiful, attractive & captivant as Pandora’s box. But everything must be done in the right way. Is like building a pyramid, from (a solid) bottom to (a durable and long-life) top.
  • all the above, in conjuncture with Mr. Murphy… can lead to unwanted situations, even tragic ones.
  • and yes… nobody (Dive Center or Professional) will dive with you unless you show your proper certification (which should demonstrate that you pass the minimum agency requierements). Or even not renting a technical diving gear!

And to conclude… yes, I strongly recommend to every sport diver to do at least an “Intro to Tech” level. To better understand the differences and benefits of good diving gear vs any diving gear, to enhance safety as a diver and as a team, to improve in-water skills and diving protocols. For diver’s own good, for environmental’s good.

Stay safe and dive safe!


ANDI Instructor Trainer #170

SDI-TDIFRTI Instructor #15172


Recreational Diving Medical 2021 Screening – survey

Following the new diving medical form, published 2020 and updated 2021 (January 21, as of the time of typing this message), here is a one-question anonymous survey, with “yes” or “no” options only. Time to complete – less than a minute!

The question is:

Do you follow question #2 (“I am over 45 years of age” – go to Box B) and “Physician’s medical evaluation required” to all your clients answering “yes”?

Thank you & stay safe!

General Scuba & Training

Fitness for SCUBA Diving

Diving is an activity with a high level of physical & mental stress. Sport (recreational) is stressful, technical diving is even more! That’s why we need to be in an appropriate status all the time in order to enjoy diving in a safe manner, return to our family and friends and plan further adventurous activities and explorations trips.

Signing the 2020 medical screening self-declaration form is a good practice but does not really protect you as a diver but the professional (Dive Center, Instructor, or Divemaster).

Depending on the country and local legislation, the validity of your medical form can be of 1 or 2 years. Anyway, keep in mind that, as with any medical check, your medical fitness level is certified as “good” at that present moment and it may alternate in the future. Therefore, is your responsibility to stay up to date physically & mentally by regularly practicing exercises and following an adequate diet.

As I always say, SCUBA diving insurance is highly recommended but does not make miracles, and maintaining a good fitness level IS in your hands only. Knowing first response procedures is very useful but again, a good fitness level will be always a bonus for the provider (and especially, from Rescue Diver level up).

Consult with your physician and keep him updated with your medical status in order to get best medical advises and treatments.

Maintaining a good physical & mental level is at the end, a moral obligation. Is for you (and your family and friends) and is for your diving team or dive buddy. If you are in troubles in-water/underwater due to your poor medical fitness, you will affect the entire dive team and even the entire dive operation.

Performing a medical check (diving and non-diving related) is not just for the signed paper. Being proactive, you may discover in advance some hidden or not-yet developed medical issues and you may have a good time in advance to correct and even improve the situation!

Diving is fun but is in our hands to make it, and fitness level is one of the cards from the overall puzzle (ANDI’s ATKEE principles).

T101-Technical & Diving Ops® provides customized fitness training & nutritional coaching thru its dedicated DeepFit® concept.

Adventures & Expeditions General Scuba & Training

SCUBA Diving in Romania – Black Sea

Black Sea – located in the SE of Europe, is a unique environment which despite its name, is quite diving friendly. Well… is not quite a Red Sea or the Mediterranean Sea, but for sure, is beautiful! In the next chapter, I will talk a bit about SCUBA diving in the Romanian Black Sea coast sector with which I am familiar. Other Black Sea coastal areas might have similar or different particularities. Contact a local dive center(s) for collecting the right and up-to-date information.

We are diving the Black Sea all year round. Anyway, the preferred season is beginning summer – half autumn, starting sometime in June and ending sometime beginning of October. With plus/minus.

Weather & winds: Unfortunately, everything is related to the weather, respectively to the wind direction.

In the north part of our coastline is the Danube Delta and everything else is south of it, and with the predominant wind from NE which blows down all the muddy water, the visibility is heavily affected by the weather. Danube Delta is a UNESCO Heritage – a fabulous place to visit, approx 140Km North of Constanta.

When winds blow from the South, clear and cold water is brought from the deep waters of Bosporus, and visibility is greatly increased.

And one more thing… there are no big bays or islands to break down the winds or currents. So… better have your passport in your hands, just in case. Just kidding!

Also, another characteristic of the Black Sea is… is very moody! We need a large window of good weather ahead to go out at sea. Websites as Windguru & Windy are constantly monitored, as well as marine VHF channel 25 for last-minute weather reports. We had dives when the sea status changed even in one hour from flat to choppy.

Visibility: average: 5…8m. Extremes: -0.5 to +20mtrs. 5m is decent and good visibility to enjoy any dive. Black Sea dive!

Water temperature: from +4degC in the winter to +27degC in the summer (surface) with strong thermocline anywhere below -10m…-15m down to 8-10deg C. So in the summertime is very common to have a 15-20deg C difference between surface and bottom.

This requires the diving plan to be well-executed, teamwork and coordination, otherwise overheating in the drysuit is not a good idea.

Warm water comes with lots of plankton and vegetation. Which drops the visibility. Not so friendly for underwater video photographers.

Salinity: Black Sea salinity is very low, almost as freshwater. Excellent for “out of mask” situation 😊and bit less weight ballast 😃 Plus that we use Steel cylinders for backmount, Aluminium cylinders for sidemount.

Wrecks: our area of expertise! We love wrecks, we dive wrecks, we know wrecks inside outside. With +29 years of sea experience, we embedded in our DNA & breathe ships & wrecks!

An excellent description of the Black Sea wrecks accessible in our area can be found here:

Best ones: the warship Russian destroyer Moskva and the two Russian submarines (SC-213 & Malyutka XII).

In some wrecks, penetration is possible, of course, with proper qualification, team & gear. For wreck diving training – You Xiu, Sadu and Paris are offering excellent profiles in depth and complexity.

Depths: from -22m to -45m. We require for all divers to be qualified minimum Advanced Open Water + Basic Nitrox and for some wrecks (over -35… -38m) – a minimum TDI Deco Procedures, ANDI Technical SafeAir Diver L3 or equivalent. This is due to the distance from the safe haven combined with the harsh conditions (thermocline, currents, visibility) as we try to minimize any possible reason for an unwanted event.

Diving insurance: compulsory. If you don’t have a valid one, we can assist you.

Medical fitness: all divers are required to be in a minimum decent physical shape! Overweighted and under influence of alcohol or drugs – not accepted. We do not support smokers therefore, we suggest you refrain from your unhealthy habit for the duration of our activities. The new medical form must be filled up and signed by all participants.

HBOT: in Constanta, we are proud to have a private high-class medical facility with a qualified team, in case of emergency and also, for regular check-ups or specialized medical examinations.

Sealife: quite rich I can say, depending on the season. Sea horses, pipefish, gobies, crabs, jellyfish, all sorts of local fish, even stingrays, and sometimes, dolphins.

Underwater archaeology:

  • Sunken city Tomis: just 150m distance from our dive center. Dive into history! Max depth: -6m to -8m.

Easy dives but very interesting site, good for training and check/try/refresh dive, rich in sea life and history!

  • Callatis: presently Mangalia city, located approx 40Km South of Constanta. Depth: -3m to -9m.

Facility & logistics: we do and/or have:

Diving Boats: we have 3 charter options:

  • One large vessel (up to 25pax) – slow(er) speed, only for coastal diving. Good for large groups, even small parties onboard 😊
  • One diving boat, approx. 15m length, up to 8-10pax, good for offshore diving.

Accommodations and restaurants:  Constanta city is full of hotels, motels & restaurants for all budgets.

Traveling to Constanta:

The main Romanian airport is Otopeni, Bucharest (OTP) – approx. 250kms distance, shuttle (mini) busses/ cars or trains available.

The local airport (international) – Kogalniceanu (CND) – is just 25kms distance from Constanta city.

Train station: approx 3km distance from our location.

To visitHistriaAdamclisi – historical places. Murfatlar is a great place if you like some good wine. Good restaurants in the city with traditional and international cuisine. Rich nightlife in Mamaia Resort, just north of Constanta with a great beach (very recently extended!) with lots of night party clubs.

South of Constanta – a dozen large resorts are offering all kinds of entertaining for day and night visitors.

Museums: Naval Museum, Military Museum, Art Museum “Ion Jalea”, The Museum on National History & Archeology, Mosaic Museum.

Fortresses in Dobrogea:

Danube Delta – the 2nd largest river delta in Europe – lots of options to explore the rich, beautiful & unique life with various local providers, including extended cruises with MS Diana.

Techirghiol – another famous place, very well known for its therapeutical mud!

Covid19: this is as you know, ongoing situation. We try to comply as much as possible or exceed regulation, when possible (including UV lamp in the technical room, for example), but we need to keep eye on the local and international movements as things might change at the last minute

Other diving locations in Romania: caves (Isverna), mines, lakes.

Latest updates: as of April 2021, any recreational diving activity is under surveillance and control of the Romanian Navy Dive Center. Unfortunately, the totalitarian monopoly of a governmental military institution with NO international accreditations, experience, training, standards, or knowledge of any kind of our recreational/technical diving activities is coming with a heavy negative impact on our businesses. At this moment, the APSR (a private NGO of Romanian professional recreational divers) is in discussions with high governmental institutions in order to clarify and establish a professional relationship between recreational/technical divers and other parties.

As such, most of our activity will be temporarily re-design, including for overseas training and activities. Will keep you updated!

For any additional information, please don’t hesitate to contact us at:

info [ at ] t101 [ dot ] ro or

info [ at ] scubatech [ dot ] eu

or via Phone: +40 774 547 323.

Thank you and stay safe!


Scuba & Training

Diving Computers & the Deco Algorithms Babylon

When is time to choose your dive computer and/or decompression algorithm… the market is rich in options for both needs. Sometimes confusing and too technically explained.

The below descriptions are not to go deep into the decompression theories or dive computers settings but rather just to give you a quick, basic and clear (I hope) description of what to expect. For dive deco theory you can find tons of good information online and normally is explained (on different levels) during the basic & advanced technical courses too.

What Is an Algorithm used in Dive Computers?

In a simple words, a dive computer algorithm is a mathematical formula(s) used to calculate your diving profile in the safest (theoretical) mode taking into considerations some factors: depth(s) and time at that specific depth(s), gas mixture(s), cylinders pressure/volume, ascent rate and mandatory deco/safety stops, surface interval between dives, water temperature, physical fitness (heart beats per minute), diving conditions etc.

The main goal of a dive computer algorithms is to keep the risk of decompression sickness (DCS) to an acceptable level based on theoretical models as per the latest research in the industry and data (set up into the dive computer) from actual dives.

No dive computer or decompression algorithm will ever know exactly what is really going on into your body, if your data set up are correctly or if you fallow all the good practice recommendations before and after the dive!

Everything is just at a theoretical level!

But the future is already here so the science is with us: O’Dive Doppler technology is giving you the opportunity to do a real on-site N2 micro-bubbles measurements post dive and see, adjust and improve your Quality Index diving profile!

As you already might noticed, various dive computers are using various decompression algorithms which leads to slightly different diving profiles.

So… what are the theories behind the decompression algorithms?

Haldane Decompression Theory: 1908, used till 1980’s by US Navy air tables, outdated by now.

Bühlmann Decompression Algorithm: 1960’s. ZH-L, from Zürich (ZH), limits (L) followed by the number of tissue compartments (and other identifiers).

VPM – The Varying Permeability Model: 2000-2002, Erik Baker and Eric Maiken. Not much used these days.

  • The VPM-B/E model variation is for the extreme or extra long dives and exposures.
  • The VPM-B/FBO model variation (Fast Bail Out) is for the use with closed circuit diving and a bail out situation.
  • The VPM-B + GFS model combination (Gradient Factor Surfacing) produces another type of relaxed profile.

RGBM – The Reduced Gradient Bubble Model:

Is used more at a recreational level, not in technical diving. Is giving quite long and unrealistic conservative deco profiles.

DSAT – The Diving Science And Technology Model : developed by PADI for Recreational Dive Planner (RDP).

GF – Gradient Factor – is the latest trend in the industry (integrated into many technical diving computers) and is defining as: “GF are presented as a fraction of the maximum inert gas “supersaturation” or M-value that can be tolerated by each of the theoretical tissue types or “compartments” (ZH-16) considered by the Buhlmann model without resulting in DCS.”

In your dive computer settings you’ll find two values: GF Low and GF High:

  • Low defines the first decompression stop – Lower the number, deeper the first stop – Pyle)
  • High defines the surfacing value – The higher Gradient Factor value (GF Hi) determines the surfacing tissue supersaturation.

There are other algorithms (military & commercial) used in the diving industry but either outdated or not applicable for sport/technical scuba diving (Cochran – EMC-20H).

The above details are not to be taken as accurate 100% but just as basic reference. There are many variations of the presented algorithms, not scope of my presentation.

Diving theory is extremely complex subject with lots of pro and cons on all sides.

Few personal recommendations:

  • Do your research before purchasing a diving computer. I know the price (your budget) is the number one criteria, but look a bit further for your needs (present & future).
  • Try to understand the settings (and keep them updated as per your dive plan) & limitations of your dive computer. Read the manual, ask a professional opinion!
  • Set & Adjust your decompression algorithm based on YOUR profile and not on your buddies! Simply because a Gradient Factor set-up works (apparently) good on your buddy doesn’t mean necessarily that will work (good) for you too!
  • Keep in mind that not every dive is the same and not every day your body is the same (in fact, getting older and more “gnawed” day by day therefore attention must be increased into extending/improving the safety margins).
  • There is no perfect and guaranteed diving algorithm & diving computer. Therefore, accidents, including DCS might happened. If you want to be 100% safe, choose a good Netflix documentary and watch it on while relaxing on your sofa.
  • Same computers (same brand) with small different inside setting can give different diving profiles therefore buddy check should include the diving computer basic too.

Who knows, maybe in 10 or 20 years, the methods used today will be considered outdated and unsafe and other theories and devices will support our hobby. Till then, stick to what is good known and proved so far.

Stay updated with the latest news & research, be flexible in understanding and applying the science in your diving activities.

Keep training, keep exploring, stay strong & stay safe!


Adventures & Expeditions Scuba & Training

Diving Insurance

Why & when?

SCUBA diving activity is often classified as an “extreme” sport for most of the regular insurers. And mentioned with very small size characters, under some obscure clauses and conditions on the bottom of your contract.

HBOT services are totally “alien” terminology, helicopter evacuations are nightmares and everything which means money “out” from their accounts is avoided as much as possible.

Dedicated and qualified (medical & diving) support? No way!

Which makes overall the regular insurance quite unreliable.

But luckily for us, there are some good insurance players on the SCUBA diving market, focused on quality and fair services.

(click on the logo and follow the registration or renewal steps)

Divers Alert Network: is a global player, with regional offices covering America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Japan & South Africa.

DAN is offering services from dive training and research into diving medicine to specialized diving & traveling insurances, ranging from Sport, Professional & Club to Family, each one with Bronze, Silver & Gold options.

Medical & HBO treatments, hospitalization, evacuation and repatriation, equipment lost, disability & death, legal expenses & travel assistance and more, are covered.

As Business Partner, T101® is offering support in selecting the best option for your needs, at no extra cost as well as First Response training under well-recognized DAN Europe standards.

DAN Europe insurance is recommended by PADI.

DiveAssure, is another global solid insurance player, recommended by SDI/TDI/ERDI & SSI.

Is offering:

  • For US residents only: Diving & Non-Diving related Insurance (Gold & Platinum), for a Single-Trip (Standard, Deluxe, Elite) and Multi-Trip (Deluxe);
  • Europe & the rest of the World: Long term or short term Personal Diving Accident Plan (“DiveSafe“) as well as Dive Travel coverage (“Dive&Travel“) to any destination worldwide available for any number of days (up to 180 consecutive days) or a full year. They offer a Liveaboard coverage, including hyperbaric treatments and also trip (Dive&Travel and Dive&Travel Plus) cancellation, trip interruption, missed connection, lost baggage and much more. And COVID19 related issues! And Medical advises too!

 DiveAssure is collaborating with The Duke Center for Hyperbaric Medicine and Environmental Physiology.

As an authorized dealer, T101® is assisting you in choosing your best insurance (DAN Europe or DiveAssure) option for you, at no extra cost for your final purchase (What You See Is What You Get).


  • The yearly cost for a SCUBA diving insurance it can be considered peanuts if you divide the insurance price per 365 days/year. One week-end evening outside (bar or restaurant) and you may spent even more than an annual scuba diving insurance!
  • A helicopter evacuation in some remote areas can easily go up to USD20K! (seen at first hand!).
  • HBOT sessions only can go easily anywhere between 400-600euros/session (Again, I seen at first hand).
  • In order to keep your insurance valid, know your Liability Coverage & dive within your certification limits!!!

There are many other global and local players in the diving industry market. Analyze and compare carefully and choose one which you think might fit best for you, but never ever dive without a valid one.

Even if holding the most expensive insurance, it is strongly & highly recommended to always follow the best practices in diving and to adhere to DAN Europe recommendations & safety rules and/or local/national safety recommendations & regulations.

Safety First, Safety Always.

Stay safe!


Adventures & Expeditions General

DAN Europe & Covid19

Due to the in-progress medical World Wide situation with SARS-CoV2, we highly recommend you to follow your National Medical & Emergency Agencies recommendations as well as DAN Europe’s:

COVID-19 : Prevention Recommendations for our Diving Community

COVID-19 and DAN Europe Membership, Assistance & Insurance

A New Health Declaration Form Sample Addressing C-19 Issues

COVID-19 Emergency

Guide to DAN Europe Training Courses Management | COVID-19_EN

Dive Operations and COVID-19: Prepping for Return

Divers Alert Network – Coronavirus – faq

A new medical screening form, approved by most of the World diving agencies is in place as of now:

*for other languages (26 in total), follow the below link:

Recreational Diving Medical Screening System

For DAN Europe diving insurance (Sport, Professional, Family etc), please follow the below link:

As #COVID19 is a very dynamic topic, please stay up-to-date with the latest information from authorized sources. Stay away from the fake news!

Risk Assessment for SCUBA Divers

applies in #covid19 activities related too.

Corona tracking sources: Johns Hopkins University & Medicine ; Worldmeters Info ; Corona Tracker

Diving After Your #COVID19 #Vaccination: Guidelines by DAN Europe

Dive safe & dive strong!



Last updated: July 2021

General Scuba & Training YachtDiver®

First Response – be prepared for the unexpected & unwanted moments

At T101®, we take safety very seriously and training in First Response is one of our strong points. We offer a wide range of First Response / Firs Aid courses under the highest standards and accreditation of two well known and reputable agencies:

Divers Alert Network Europe & First Response International

The well known Divers Alert Network is involved World Wide for over 30 years in diving insurances, research, training & education, being a point of reference in the entire diving industry (sport & commercial, military etc).

Sport – Professional – Club – Family DAN Europe Insurance

Divers Alert Network Europe: accredited by US Coast Guard, Italian Coast Guard, Finnish Boarder Guard, Italian Red Cross, Italian Carabinieri, Apnea Academy, VIT Germany, WASD Europe, LIFRAS Belgium, NOAA, Association of Diving Contractors International, Swiss Resuscitation Council etc

DAN Europe Basic Life Support
DAN Europe Automated External Defibrillator
DAN Europe Hazardous Marine Life Injuries
DAN Europe First Aid
DAN Europe Oxygen Administration

First Response International is part of the big family


which speak by itself about commitment to high quality standards in training, procedures, safety and modern educational approach.

First Response International: accredited by

US Coast Guard & OSHA

Workplace CPR/AED
Bloodborne Pathogens
Oxygen Administration
Adult & Child Emergency Care

FRTI Online / eLearning

All courses are ILCOR accredited and are also in conformity with Romanian Law 319 / 2006 .

Extra online support (Zoom/Skype), class theory review, practical hands-on with Demo & Real AED – mannequin – medical & DAN Europe O2 kit, written exams & post-course analyzing & debriefing.

*The First Response courses are compulsory for professional sport SCUBA diving instructors and highly recommended for all divers and non-divers (seaman’s, athletes, parents, workers etc).

All certifications are valid for two years after which renewal (refresh course) is required.

In these days, knowing a basic life support / first aid procedures is not a caprice but a real necessity. From an office to a shipyard work, family to outdoor activities, knowing BASIC procedures in providing first aid is extremely important.

T101® is DAN Europe HIRA 2 accredited as Operator & Instructor level.

For inquiries & training, please contact me at:

Stay safe & dive strong!


DAN Europe Instructor #187305

FRTI Instructor #15172

General Scuba & Training

First Personal Doppler in Romania

I consider myself a very dynamic person and diver. My motto is simple: Discipline-Travail-Succès

And so is T101® of which Vision, Mission and Values are focusing for more, better & safer by offering extra top services and experiences:

  • Personalized fitness & nutrition programs
  • Body Composition Scanning (Weight & Body Mass Index, Body Fat Muscle, Resting Metabolic Rate, Visceral Fat) and Blood Pressure test.
  • Providing full first aid kit with Oxygen, SpO2, and (real) Automated External Defibrillator, including for training.
  • First certified HIRA 2 Dive Center from Romania, showing our commitment for safety & quality in our services and operations.
  • Using 30W UV bactericidal lamp – disinfection station in the dive center

Today, T101® took a step further into providing a futuristic safety tool to our divers – we join the team of divers aiming for evolution & revolution in diving safety and we are proud to be the first

dive center in Romania

offering (starting December 2020) personalized Doppler analysis for

Sport, Advanced, CCR & Technical divers!

What means this for you? You can plan your dive (NSR/Deco, Gases, Bottom Time, Run Time, GF, nutrition & hydration, physical effort etc) and execute the plan. After the dive, a series of Doppler measurements are taken and YOUR personal profile is analyzed to see the efficiency of YOUR planning.

Then, we can fine-tuning your next planning (bottom gas, additional deco times, O2 deco, Gradient Factors Low/High) to improve your Quality Index of your dive profile – for less “micro-bubbles” and safer dives!

Divers Alert Network Europe (DAN Europe) presented an extended test performed during their expedition in the Red Sea: “The APOCALIPTRIP: CCR Research Expedition in the Red Sea” and “Advancements in Diving Research: the Personalised Decompression“.

Global Underwater Explorer (GUE), in their high quality blog InDepth, took a deep review of this revolutionary Doppler equipment: “Oh Deco, Oh Doppler, O’Dive: Assessing the World’s First Personal Deco Safety Tool“.

Excited to find out how is your body really dealing with the decompression stress after a dive?

We are thrilling too to share together the future!

Stay tuned & stay alert! You will love it!

T101 is accredited dive center:

Latest updates November 2021:

The O’Dive Pro connected service is appointed as Recommended Practice by TOTAL in its October 2020 Diving Safety Flash bulletin.

Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine Journal: The study was carried out by the hyperbaric caisson of the Brussels and DAN Military Hospital.The study’s conclusion states:′′ The O ‘ Dive system can help increase diving safety by instantly sensitizing divers to the potential consequences of some types of diving behavior.It was noted that this type of monitoring reinforced divers in their safe diving habits or encouraged them to change their diving planning. We don’t know if it’s a lasting effect.”

DAN Europe Research 2020 presentation (min. 20:26)