General Scuba & Training

SCUBA diving books to “kill” COVID-19 downtime.

T101 – Technical & Diving Ops® Dive Training Center

Now that the #COVID19 is shutting down the entire diving Planet, here are a list of few books recommended to extend your theoretical knowledge:

Staying Alive by Steve Lewis

The Six Skills and Other Discussions: Creative Solutions for Technical Divers by Steve Lewis

Advanced Wreck Diving Handbook By Gary Gentile

Under pressure – Diving deeper with Human Factors by Gareth Lock

For any diving technical training done together, you’ll get a free “Human Factors Skills in Diving – Micro-class“, compulsory to be completed before ending the theory and practical skills.

Deep Into Deco by Asser Salama

Ocean Gladiator by Mark Ellyatt

Death in number two shaft by Steve Lewis

A compiling of various scuba diving materials can be found here:

T101 Vault Library.

Other internet sources: Blue PO2 Diving (scuba & technical), PADI Blog, Good Reads, Dipndive etc.

Adventures & Expeditions Scuba & Training YachtDiver.EU

Remote expedition “must have” for SuperYachts & Expedition-Cruise Ships – part 2

Personal Locator Beacon (PLB)

Following the 1st part (Portable Hyperbaric Chamber), the next recommendation for exploration / explorer vessels running diving or water sport activities in remote areas is Personal Locator Beacon.

As general accepted definition of “remote area” in our maritime sector, the Search & Rescue team is not available right away to assist you. It might take hours or even days in some exceptional situations.

PLB (known also as Emergency Locator Beacon) is a very small device, portable, tough, low cost, which onces activated will indicate your position to the nearby vessels by using a radio AIS (Automatic Identification System) & DSC (Digital Selective Calling) method of digital transmission of your GPS position on Earth.

Valuable equipment for yachtsmen as man overboard or you’ll find it for renting onboard reputable scuba diving liveaboard (as Aggressor Adventures), PLBs is fully worth its investment.

Nautilus Marine Rescue GPS Specifications

AIS Transmit Power1 Watt
AIS Frequency
161.975 and 162.025 MHz
DSC Transmit Power
0.5 Watt
DSC Frequency
156.525 MHz
Individual Distress Relay, Distress Alert
Environmental Temperature Range
-25°C – +55°C
Waterproof Depth425 feet (130 meter) sea water with dive cap closed/ Splashproof with dive cap open
2.9 x 3.8 x 1.5 inch (75 x 97 x 39 mm)
4.6 Oz (131g) after inserting two batteries

NautilusLifeline dealer in Romania is SC OmnisMares SRL ( T101-Technical & Diving Ops® Dive Training Center / YachtDiver.EU) and can be online purchased or tested onsite.


Meeting the Deepest Man on Earth.

Herbert goggles

253.2meters. Or 830.8feet. That’s a lot. A lot to walk on land holding your breath. I bet that most of us cannot do it easily.

Well, now imagine to translate the horizontal walk into a vertical descent into the blue… 253.2meters down.

Herbert & Costa
Myself and Herbert

His name is Herbert Nitsch. His holding the title of the World’s Deepest Man on Earth with various No Limit dives: -214m in Spetses, Greece (June 14, 2007 for which is included in the Guinness World Records) & -253.2m in Santorini, Greece (June 06, 2012) using a custom made “yellow submarine” and personalized techniques for equalization. He’s holding another +31 World records in various AIDA disciplines (33WR in total!).

Herbert yellow submarine
Herb’s yellow submarine

In the beginning of September 2019, I had the great pleasure of meeting him a couple of times in the beautiful South of France. We had dinners, long chats about almost everything “diving related”. He is a very friendly, open mind and willing to share his enormous experience in freediving.

Herbert with his custom made goggles
Herbert & his custom made goggles
AIDA 2019

Between September 2nd and 15th 2019, Villefranche (SoF) held the “2019 AID Depth World Championship” and in this occasion, I met another “monster” in freediving: Alexey Molchanov. He got some very good results in this competition!

Herbert - Costa - Alexey
Herbert, myself and Alexey

An autobiographic book with Herbert’s freediving experience will come up sometimes soon, so stay tuned – is going to be very interesting to read and explore the history of freediving! He is now an active conservationist and speaker with worldwide activities.

Herbert t-short signed dedicated to Costa
Herbert’s t-shirt with dedicated signature!

Story written down with great honor & pleasure by yours, Costa

T101-Technical & Diving Ops® Dive Training Center



Adventures & Expeditions YachtDiver.EU

Remote expedition “must have” for SuperYachts & Expedition-Cruise Ships

  1. Portable Hyperbaric Chamber: if your vessel is performing remote diving operations, then this is a number one “must have” onboard.

T101-Technical & Diving Ops® / YachtDiver.EU / ScubaTech.EU recommendation: AHA-Hyperbarics.

Designed and manufactured in Europe, AHA-Hyperbarics is holding CE certificate according to full quality assurance system directive 93/42/EEC on medical devices (MDD) for the new models of AHA Flex hyperbaric systems & EN ISO 13485:2016 for design and development, manufacture, distribution and service of hyperbaric chambers for hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

The company is partnering with ANDI International in training and expo shows. ANDI International is one of the oldest diving training agency in the World, dedicated mostly to technical (rebreathers, wrecks, caves, mines), technicians and medical / HBOT training sectors, with lots of “firsts” innovative steps. ANDI is member of International Hyperbaric Medical Foundation.

AHA-Hyperbarics is providing qualified training & support for all provided equipment, either at their facility or onsite (onboard your vessel).

For extended information, please contact PROMO Agent: YachtDiver.EU represented by Constantin “Costa” Benedic.

Next, coming soon…

2. Crew training!

YachtDiver.EU is a dedicated department part of SC OmnisMares SRL (Romanian private registered company), owner of T101-Technical & Diving Ops® Dive Training Center. We are holding real inside experience onboard expedition-cruise ships and very large superyachts therefore we are able to provide premium training and services for your selected Guests, Owners and VVIPs!


WreckTek expedition – August 2020

WreckTek expedition

Wreck technical diving week to explore some of the most famous shipwrecks of the Mediterranean Sea and not only.
Due to depths, run times and deco obligations, only Normoxic & Hypoxic Trimix certified divers!
If interested in inside wreck exploration, Advanced Wreck certification is required too!

Wrecks to visit:
Submarine U-455
Super tanker Haven
Steam passenger vessel Calabria
Mine-layer Pelagosa
Submarine hunter UJ2208
and more!

Recreational divers are welcome too but they will be part of a different diving team & planning.

Date: 02-09 of August 2020; might be slightly modified +/- but everything will be posted in advance here (
Accommodation: 3* and 4* hotels or private apartments in the area.
Airport: GOA (Genoa Airport / Christopher Columbus Airport) – 10km from the dive center.
Pick-up/drop off from/to airport can be arranged.
Price/dive: 50 to 100euros/dive (depending on the dive site/run time).

For info & planning, please contact me at:
info [ at ]
info [ at ]

Thank you!



#WreckTecExploration #DeepDiving #ShipWrecks #DivingExpedition
#ScubaTechEU #T101DiveTrainingCenter

Scuba & Training

Smoking & diving: ethics vs morals principles

Each person has a vice and smoking is one of them for some of them.

Hardly combated, smoking is losing the war due to massive education and laws which are restricting public activities that are affecting the health of others.

Smoking is irrefutable bad. Bad for the person smoking, bad for the people around (second handsmokers”) and even for the unborn ones (third hand “smokers”). Studies are conducted all over the World, results can be found quite easily on the internet.

Based on the above statements and huge information we have in our hands, is quite clear that diving and smoking are not compatible. And therefore, highly not recommended.

Below are few, just few links in which various sources are talking about the inappropriate relation between smoking and diving:

Some agencies even claim to prohibit smoking for their members (GUE).

ANDI is addressing in their technical manuals:

the diver should refrain from smoking to keep the lungs clear and keep carbon monoxide, a by-product of tobacco smoke, from reducing the oxygen carrying capacity of hemoglobin. All drugs, alcohol and even non-prescription drugs, i.e. decongestants, antihistamines, cold capsules, etc. should be avoided for at least 12 hours prior to diving.

In combination with dehydration, heat, physical fitness level, unfavorable medical history, age etc, smoking may increase the chances of a DCS.

Romanian Navy Diver badge

Some studies shows that the navy divers are not so heavily affected by smoking and this is mainly due to the intense physical activities part of their complex training.

In high performance sport activities, there are many studies, some of them with even controversial results:

Team Sport Participation and Smoking: Analysis with General Growth Mixture Modeling
Cigarette smoking: an underused tool in high-performance endurance training
Smoking and Physical Activity
Physical exercise, sports, and lung function in smoking versus nonsmoking adolescents

And to not forget the latest “trend”… vaping:

Health Risks of E-cigarettes, Smokeless Tobacco, and Waterpipes
Electronic Cigarettes (E-cigarettes)
Quick Facts on the Risks of E-cigarettes for Kids, Teens, and Young Adults

and the banning process in some states around the World: Israel, India, US / Massachusetts, etc…

And the list can go on for long…

Not to mention the billions of cigarette butts polluting the seas:

The point of my above introduction is going this time into another direction:

Smoking while diving activities is ethical and moral correct?

Let’s first clarify what is what.

As per Britannica, „both morality and ethics loosely have to do with distinguishing the difference between “good and bad” or “right and wrong.” Many people think of morality as something that’s personal and normative, whereas ethics is the standards of “good and bad” distinguished by a certain community or social setting.

We, as professional, have the duty to correctly inform our students and clients about all sides of the activity in progress. During the training, during preparation of the equipment, during briefing and debriefing etc. We should conduct our activities always at the highest standard, exceeding the minimum required by the training agency. Not because the agency is asking for (or imposing) but because we are pro and we look for more, better and higher.

We should show at all the times that we are professionals by the way we act, and we should lead by example. You cannot explain in a basic Open Water Diver class the function of lungs and gas exchange (oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide to mention few), and smoking while gearing up (or even with the wet suit on between the dives). At a higher-level course, this is already beyond acceptance.

In his very well documented blog, Gareth Lock is explaining the concept of „you don’t know what you don’t know” – worth to read it here: . Could be that the professional simply… don’t know?!? Maybe. But honestly… hard to believe. And even harder to accept after years of “pro level” career.

In order to keep our students aware of various aspects involving human factors, all technical diving courses conducted by myself are incorporating the “Human Factors Skills in Diving – Micro-class”. The online short course is highly recommended to any divers who want to understand more about what is behind the front line of human psychology.

Returning back to my debate…it is ethical and moral as professional diver (Instructor, Divemaster), to smoke in the front of your students?

If is to translate it into Britannica’s meanings, smoking in the front of your students or customers is both bad (ethical) and wrong (professional).

Bad because is showing lack of respect towards your clients (who might know less or why not, more than you regarding the aspects of smoking & diving) and bad because you do exactly opposite what you should do as a leader: teach the new generation of divers to be a good divers in all meanings.

Is this (smoking in the front of divers while diving activity in progress) a final criteria to analyze if an instructor/divemaster is a good professional?

Not necessarily, as there are many other aspects makes a diver to be a real pro.

In the very end… any factor which may negatively influence the team’s safety may affect you too. Therefore, in diving is never enough to take all safety measures possible in order to ensure a successful dive: return back to family and friends, share great memories and do some other adventurous diving plans!

Till then, dive safe, be safe and stay fit!


ANDI IT, SDI/TDI/FRTI – PADI – DDI – EFR – DAN Europe Instructor

Scuba & Training

Rebreather JJ-CCR training in Romania & SE Europe.


As of October 2018, rebreather training for the best 4×4 machine on the market – JJ-CCR – will be available in Romania, SE Europe or on board superyachts on request.

Discover Rebreather – if you would like to see what is like to dive into the “dark zone”,

ANDI JJ-CCR L1 – the very first level recreational level, -18m depth MSW, air diluent, NSR.

ANDI JJ-CCR L2 – the recreational level, -40m depth MSW, air diluent, NSR.

All trainings at T101® are customized for best experience and safety.

For information and planning, please contact me via email or mobile or even better, if you a nearby, pass by for a face 2 face chat and introduction to the “beast” – the JJ-CCR unit.

JJ-CCR rebreather
JJ-CCR Rebreather

Safe dives,


ANDI Instructor Trainer #170

ANDI JJ-CCR L2 Rebreather Instructor

ANDI Trimix L5 Instructor & ANDI Technical Trimix Wreck L3 Instructor (L5 diver)

ps: your next adventures could be…

Scuba & Training

Wreck Divers Awareness and Exploration Club – blog.

Un nou blog dedicat exclusiv scufundarilor in spatiile inchise – EPAVE – este disponibil aici:

Wreck Divers Awareness and Exploration Club WDAEC®


un proiect marca T101 – Technical & Diving Ops® – Dive & Training Center

Scuba & Training

Un curs de prim ajutor…

Acum cateva saptamani in urma, am participat la un curs de prim ajutor, gratuit, organizat de catre o institutie din Constanta. Cu toate ca sunt instructor certificat EFR & DAN Europe, am vrut sa-mi reimprospatez informatia si sa vad si un alt punct de vedere, cursul fiind prezentat de catre personalul SMURD.

Nota: opinia prezenta este personala si nu implica nici una dintre partile mentionate.

Organizarea cursului a fost bine structurata si prezentata de catre cadrul activ SMURD Constanta. Prezenta a fost destul de numeroasa, undeva la 30 de persoane. Din pacate, majoritatea era mereu cu ochii pe ceas, interesul fiind probabil pentru certificatul de absolvire si mai putin pentru informatia prezentata.

S-au atins in detaliu procedurile de acordare a primului ajutor, in special a masajului cardio-respirator, atat la adulti cat si la copii precum si ajutorul secundar (electrocutari, inec etc).

Nu s-a discutat insa deloc despre folosirea echipamentelor automate de defibrilatie (Automated External Defibrilator sau Defibrilator Extern Automat) si despre administrarea oxygenului. (DEA incep sa fie din ce in ce mai prezente in spatiile publice aglomerate: aeroporturi, gari etc).

Cursul de baza SMURD a durat aproximativ 5 ore. Cursurile de voluntariat SMURD sunt insa mult mai complexe si depasesc cu mult nivelul de baza deoarece includ un numar foarte mare de ore de teorie si practica reala pe autospeciale SMURD.

Pentru comparatie, un curs de prim ajutor (Emergency First Response sau Basic Life Support & First Aid – DAN Europe) contra cost, dureaza intre 8 si 10h si include primul ajutor (CPR) si ajutorul secundar (First Aid) in diverse situatii (electrocutari, arsuri, fracturi, inec etc), utilizarea defibrilatorului extern automat (demo cu simulari pe manechin) si acordarea primului ajutor folosind oxigenul. Sunt incluse materiale video detaliate si manuale (in format pdf) precum si teste finale. Numarul de participanti este restrans pentru o mai buna distributie a informatiei teoretice si practice.

Toate cursurile sunt in concordanta cu recomandarile ILCOR, ambele agentii (EFR & DAN Europe) fiind recunoscute de institutii internationale de renume: US Coast Guard, Italian Coast Guard, Finnish Boarder Guard, NOAA, ADC, Carabinieri, International Yacht Training, New Zealand Qualifications Authority, Korean Body Guard Martial Arts Association, National Academy of Sports Medicine US, California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation, American Council on Exercise etc. De asemenea cursurile EFR & DAN Europe sunt recunoscute si acceptate de catre agentiile certificatoare in domenul scufundarilor sportive (pentru nivelele profesionale Divemaster si superior – sunt obligatorii).

Alte cursuri disponibile sunt: Oxigen First Aid for Scuba Diving Injuries  & First Aid for Hazardous Marine Life Injuries (lista este insa mai extinsa).

Cursul mai sus mentionat a fost interesant, util dar din pacate, incomplet. De asemenea, numarul mare de participanti face imposibila distribuirea calitativa a informatiei fiecarui participant in parte. Evident, cantitatea si calitatea informationala detinuta de personalul SMURD este impresionanta, cu mult peste ceea ce poate asimila in cateva ore o persoana obisnuita, neimplicata in activitate de prim ajutor sau medicala!

Cursurile EFR & DAN Europe sunt valabile 2 ani de zile dupa care se recomanda refacerea lor din cel putin doua motive: 1) regulat apar modificari in practicile recomandate si 2) ca personal non-profesional, lipsa practicii regulate duce la diluarea/pierderea informatiei asimilate anterior. Personalul paramedic efectueaza aceste reimprospatari mult mai des si mai intens in baze special amenajate.

Nu lasa evenimentele neplacute sa te prinda nepregatit, indiferent ca esti la locul de munca, pe strada sau acasa!


112 – apelul de urgenta national si european

113 – apelul unic de urgenta national pentru persoanele cu dizabilitati de auz.


ANDI Instructor Trainer #170

DAN Europe Instructor #187305 & EFR Instructor #976872.

T101 – Technical & Diving Ops® Dive Center / Centru Scafandri


Scuba & Training

Scafandru de Epave / Wreck Diver

updated: Oct. 20, 2019

     Epavele reprezinta un punct de atractie pentru multi scafandri, un varf al pregatirii lor profesionale, o experienta unica in scufundari. Candva pline de viata, epavele au o istorie trista, in marea lor majoritate fiind rezultatul fie al unor erori de navigatie, al unor decizii murdare de sabotare sau al uratelor conflicte militare. In anii recenti, unele state au inceput sa scufunde nave in mod intentionat, creeand recife artificiale si implicit puncte de atractie pentru turistii scafandri. Bineinteles, navele sunt ecologizate mai intai si apoi scufundate planificat.

     Epavele prezinta o atractie care poate fi insa fatala. Tratate fara respect sau cu aroganta, epavele pot fi adevarate capcane mortale.

     Adeseori, ati vazut pe forumuri de specialitate sau in diverse materiale publicate pe net, discutii si comentarii pe tema: cine-i mai bun: “scafandrul de epave sau cel de pesteri” (Cave vs Advanced Wreck ; Caves vs Mines ; nota: cavernele ar fi echivalentul unui basic wreck) sau “care scufundari sunt mai periculoase/grele: cele in pesteri sau cele in epave” etc.

    Adevarul este ca asa cum fiecare scufundare recreationala are particularitatea ei si nu sunt doua scufundari la fel, tot asa si scufundarile in pesteri si in epave au particularitatile lor cu punctele lor “pro” si “contra”.

     Din pacate, marketingul “cave” functioneaza mult mai eficient ceea ce face ca scufundarile in pesteri sa aiba suprematie media in fata scufundarilor in epave. Probabil multi dintre cei ce au deschis drumurile scufundarilor tehnice acum multi ani au avut ocazia sa se scufunde preponderent in pesteri (cele din Florida si Mexico fiind cele mai faimoase) si de aceea nu si-au mai batut capul prea mult cu epavele. Deseori, logistica pentru scufundarile la epave este mult mai complexa, mai ales daca epavele sunt de adancime iar distanta fata de portul cel mai apropiat (safe heaven) este mare. De asemenea, conditiile meteo sunt mai greu de controlat (chiar daca prognozele meteo au o destul de mare precizie si monitorizare in timp real).

      Pesterile sunt clasificate mereu in “spatii inchise – overhead” avand cursuri de sine statatoare (TDI, GUE, ANDI, UTD) pe cand scufundarile la/in epave au statut de “specializare” (PADI, TDI/SDI, RAID) si mai putin de “curs overhead” dedicat. Sunt insa agentii (ANDI, IANTD, SSI, NAUI, UTD) unde exista cursuri dedicate overhead pentru “cave” & “wreck”. La unele agentii definita “wreck” nu apare deloc (GUE). In schimb, cursurile altor agentii (BSAC, CMAS) trebuiesc urmate cu precautie deoarece standardele sunt oarecum depasite sau mult prea simpliste. PSAI trece direct la nivelul de scafandru avansat de epave.



     Unele nivele de certificare pot crea confuzii: de exemplu, SSI Advanced Wreck Diver are ca cerinte de inscriere la curs – Open Water Diver, se efectueaza doar 2 scufundari de curs in conditii reale (si o scufundare optionala in piscina) iar firul ghid este optional. Chiar daca titulatura este de “Avansat”.

     In schimb, SDI Basic Wreck vs TDI Advanced Wreck Diver sunt clar delimitate in pregatire si competente.

     ANDI Wreck Diver trece la urmatorul nivel si clasifica certificarile de scafandru de epave in functie de calificarea de baza de Open Water (adancime, gaze, configuratie echipamente) si profunzimea penetrarii in epava (relationata cu firul ghid si devierile de la firul ghid) in MOD1 pana la MOD5. Evident, o penetrare “avansata” intr-o epava la -60m nu este la fel precum una intr-o epava la -20m adancime. ANDI diversifica specializarile la penetrari in epave inclusiv in diverse combinatii: OC, CCR, Sidemount, DPV etc.

     Fiecare combinatie de echipamente si penetrare implica evaluari de riscuri, tehnici de configurare si penetrare, tehnici de inot si flotabilitate ce trebuiesc controlate la perfectie! Cursuri de solidificare a notiunilor de baza – Fundamentals / Intro to Tech – sunt oferite de ANDI, GUE, TDI .

T101® a creat Tek a Rec® – un concept personalizat de introducere in lumea tech, ce combina experienta personala si principiile de baza ale altor agentii, oferind flexibilitate si dinamism in echipament si atitudine.

     Totusi, certificarile finale difera de la agentie la agentie, chiar daca se refera, cel putin teoretic, la (relativ) acelasi nivel de brevetare. Sa nu uitam ca “aroma” finala a cursului si antrenamentului este data de experienta si abilitatea instructorului de a oferii informatiile necesare si de a impinge limitele scafandrului cursant spre progres.

     De aceea, in general, este foarte greu de facut un tabel al echivalentelor intre cursuri pe agentii diferite, deoarece fiecare agentie are plusurile si minusurile ei la limitele de adancime si timpii de scufundare/decompresie, gazele folosite, standardele, metodologiile de predare academica etc.

     Revenind la epavele noastre, pe blogul lui Andy Davis – Scuba tech Philippines, a fost recent publicat un material bine documentat – The anatomy of an effective wreck diving course pe care vi-l recomand spre citire.

     De asemenea, cartea lui Gary Gentile – “The Advanced Wreck Diving Handbook” va poate fi de folos, chiar daca sunteti un scafandru cu experienta la epave. Cartile lui Steve Lewis – “The Six Skills and Other Discussions” & “Staying Alive” va vor ajuta foarte mult in consolidarea unor informatii tehnice generale foarte utile in scufundarile sportive si tehnice.

     Orice material teoretic este foarte binevenit pentru un bagaj de cunostinte mai bogat. Dar, inainte de a va aventura la scufundari “la” si “in” epave, urmati un curs corespunzator! Numai asa veti intelege pe deplin frumusetea si duritatea unei epave. Nu lasati ego-ul si ignoranta sa va domine.

     Si stati in limitele pentru care ati fost certificat si antrenat. Chiar daca tentatia este mare, viata are prioritate.

     Si chiar daca sunteti certificat/calificat pentru un nivel avansat (OC/CCR, wrecks/caves/mines), nu lasati rutina sa va domine. Provocati-va din cand in cand la alte cursuri, in alte medii, cu alte echipe astfel incat sa nu va lasati complesiti de sentimentul de superioritate dobandit.

    Cursurile si antrenamentele de “wreck diver” pe care le ofer sub standardele agentiei ANDI sunt urmatoarele:

–        ANDI SafeAir Wreck Diver L1: -40m, penetrare:

                                                                        light zone; NSR

–        ANDI Technical Wreck Diver L2: -40m, penetrare:

                                                                       No limit, NO jumps;   Deco RT 30min.

–        ANDI Technical Trimix Wreck Diver L3: -50m, penetrare:

                                                                       No limit, 1 jump; Deco RT 45min.

     Urmatoarele nivele sunt ANDI TriMix Wreck Diver L4 & ANDI Exploration TriMix Wreck Diver L5.


     Pentru informatii suplimentare, planificari si scufundari la epave, nu ezitati sa ma contactati.

Wreck Zenobia
Wreck Zenobia

Ape linistite,


ANDI Technical Trimix Wreck Instructor L3

ANDI Exploration Trimix Wreck Diver L5

ANDI Instructor Trainer 170

T101 – Technical & Diving Ops® – Dive Training Center

T101® este centru de scufundari acreditat ANDI & SDI/TDI